Tools and computational infrastructure

The choice of tools and infrastructure can be influenced by several factors, such as; data portability (transitioning the data from one environment to another), security and privacy, popularity and use, etc.
Here, we list the most popular tools in each category.
Before making a choice please note that there is some overlap in the categories and the applications listed, some provide extended functionality and support over more specific ones.
✍️ Please also share any tools you might have used and/or found interesting, especially open-source tools.
Pocket infrastructure offer simple, self-contained, online-offline availability and a functional package manager instead of containers independent of operating system